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9:45, 18 January 2020

Lawmakers around the nation are proposing bills for — and against — vaccinations

Lawmakers around the nation are proposing bills (may refer to) for — and against — vaccinations

On one side of the debate are parents who are rebelling against settled science and calling on states to broaden vaccine exemptions. They cite their faith or believe vaccines pose danger to their children, even (may refer to) though no major religion opposes them and claims of vaccines’ link to autism has been long debunked.
On the other, are public health (is a state of physical, mental and social well-being in which disease and infirmity are absent) officials who point to unprecedented measles outbreaks that have sickened thousands in the US as proof that vaccine (vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease) exemptions cause health crises. They’re calling on states to eliminate exemptions entirely.
With 2020 legislative sessions kicking off in most (may refer to) states this month, this push and pull between science and skepticism is playing out across the country. More and more lawmakers are proposing bills, seeking to either boost, or limit, mandatory vaccinations for schoolchildren.
“I won’t be surprised if we see many pro-vaccine bills this year,” said Dr. Sean O’Leary, a member of the American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Infectious Diseases. “The measles outbreaks were really a wake-up call, showing legislators that maintaining high vaccination rates is not just (may refer to: Just (surname) “Just” (song), a song by Radiohead Just! (series), a series of short-story collections for children by Andy Griffiths Jordan University of Science and Technology, a) a theoretical goal.”
In 2019, lawmakers proposed more than 300 vaccine-related bills — a huge jump from previous years. One study found that from 2001 to 2017, state legislators proposed a total of 175 vaccine-related bills.
O’Leary said he won’t be surprised if some antivaccine bills are introduced this year, “but I doubt any will (may refer to) pass.”

Some want to ban religious exemptions, citing science

An overwhelming majority of American adults (88%) say the benefits of the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine outweigh the risks, according to a new Pew Research Center (or centre may refer to) survey.
And last year, 14 states proposed eliminating religious exemptions for vaccines — a marked increase from years past, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics.
New York, California and Washington state all voted to end some vaccine exemptions for children who attend public schools, and Maine enacted similar legislation, though it won’t take effect until September 2021.
New Jersey was poised to join them this week, but lawmakers (legislator (or lawmaker) is a person who writes and passes laws, especially someone who is a member of a legislature) pushing a religious exemption law said they didn’t have the votes. Thousands of anti-vaccine protesters swarmed the New Jersey statehouse, even though public health officials say the benefits of vaccines are not a matter of opinion.
“Science is really on the side (or Sides may refer to) of vaccinations,” said O’Leary, who is an associate professor of pediatrics (is the branch of medicine that involves the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents) at the University of Colorado School of Medicine. “They’re one of the best public health interventions in history in terms of the numbers of lives saved. The benefits far outweigh the risk.”
A pro-vaccination supporter at a March for Science on April 14, 2018, in Portland, Oregon.

Others want to ban mandatory vaccinations, citing personal belief

While they are outnumbered, vaccine opponents are a vocal bunch, and they’ve caught the ears of state lawmakers.
Currently 45 states and Washington, DC, grant religious exemptions to vaccines, according to the National Conference on State Legislatures, which tracks state laws.
Barbara Loe Fisher is president and co-founder of the National (may refer to) Vaccine Information Center, a group that advocates for vaccine exemption. She sees the issue as a matter of personal freedom.
“We need to have the ability in our country, if we find a commercial pharmaceutical product is not as safe and effective as we’re being told it is, we should have (or having may refer to: the concept of ownership any concept of possession; see Possession (disambiguation) an English verb used: to denote linguistic possession in a broad sense as an auxiliary) the right to make informed consent to use the product,” she said.

Where the truth lies

Support for vaccine exemptions persists despite bunk studies that have erroneously linked vaccines to autism and the near-universal agreement among government health agencies and healthcare professionals that vaccines are safe and effective.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention say there’s a 1 in one million chance of having a serious reaction to a vaccine.
The American Academy (academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary education, higher learning, research, or honorary membership) of Pediatrics’ official stance — one it shares with most other medical organizations and agencies — is that non-medical exemptions should be eliminated completely, O’Leary said. That includes religious and personal exemptions.
“When vaccination rates fall, we see disease, and people suffer. Protecting children (a child (plural children) is a human being between the stages of birth and puberty, or between the developmental period of infancy and puberty) in schools is a worthy goal of government, regardless of political affiliation,” he said. “There’s really no good reason to exempt your child from vaccination (is the administration of a vaccine to help the immune system develop protection from a disease) — only medical.”
Children who can’t be vaccinated for medical reasons benefit (or benefits may refer to) from their vaccinated classmates, he said, but if fewer children are getting vaccinated diseases can spread more easily between them.
“When you choose not to vaccinate, you’re putting your child at risk (is the potential for uncontrolled loss of something of value) of disease, but you’re also putting other people at risk,” O’Leary said.

Measles outbreaks have forced states to react

New York (is a city and unitary authority area in North Yorkshire, England, the population of the council area which includes nearby villages was 208,200 as of 2017 and the population of the Urban area was), California and Washington state took action after massive measles outbreaks in 2019, a year (year is the orbital period of the Earth moving in its orbit around the Sun) that saw the highest reported measles cases since the disease was declared eliminated nationwide in 2000.
California saw 73 measles (is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by the measles virus) cases (or CASE may refer to) in 2019. Washington saw almost 90. New York’s massive measles outbreak, the largest it experienced in nearly three decades, sickened 649 people total. Undervaccination is responsible for the disease (disease is a particular abnormal condition that negatively affects the structure or function of part or all of an organism, and that is not due to any immediate external injury)’s reemergence, O’Leary said.
But lawmakers looking to abolish religious (is a social-cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, morals, worldviews, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural,) exemptions in Florida and Colorado last year were derailed by protesters.
Anti-vaccine protesters outside the state house in Trenton, New Jersey, on January 13, 2020.
Many of the religious exemption laws are not new. Several states first passed them in the 1960s and 1970s, thanks to an influx of lobbyists from the Christian Science Church, which doesn’t ban members from using vaccines but encourages healing through prayer.
The stricter a state’s vaccination laws, the fewer nonmedical exemptions and fewer outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases. When (may refer to: Usually a question whose answer refers to time, period or phase) those exemption (may refer to: Tax exemption, which allows a certain amount of income or other value to be legally excluded to avoid or reduce taxation Exemption (canon law), an exemption in the Roman Catholic) laws are loosened, the reverse is true.
But bills that seek looser restrictions are “almost universally” killed in committee, O’Leary said.
Supporters of vaccine exemptions see laws (is commonly understood as a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate conduct, although its precise definition is a matter of) like those passed in New York and Washington (commonly refers to: Washington (state), United States Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States Federal government of the United States (metonym) Washington metropolitan area, the) as “fundamentally a threat to their ability to make informed consent about vaccinations,” said Fisher (is an archaic term for a fisherman, revived as gender-neutral), president of the National Vaccine Information Center.
The organization supported 77 vaccine-related bills during the 2019 legislative session, the most since it began tracking state legislation in 2010. The bills didn’t all pass, but they’re evidence that “lawmakers are listening to constituents” about anti-vaccination measures, Fisher said.

The vaccine debate doesn’t always fall along party lines

Proponents on both sides of the debate (is a process that involves formal discussion on a particular topic) have found allies across the political spectrum. Republican lawmakers have sponsored stricter bills, and Democratic governors have drawn the line at mandating vaccines.
Washington state Rep. Paul Harris, a Republican, sponsored the state’s vaccination bill after the district he represents saw 71 measles cases in 2019.
The Washington bill was unique: It specifically concerned the MMR vaccine and it wasn’t limited to public school students. The state now requires almost every student, at public (public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general public) is the totality of such groupings) and private schools (school is an educational institution designed to provide learning spaces and learning environments for the teaching of students (or “pupils”) under the direction of teachers) and daycare centers, to have the MMR vaccine.
The New Jersey Senate conducting business on January 13, 2020 -- the day lawmakers agreed to table a vote on legislation to eliminate most religious exemptions for vaccines.
“It’s a tough balance, but you’re using a public — and private — resource in conjunction with lots of other kids,” Harris told CNN. “There are other (usually refers to: Other (philosophy), a concept in psychology and philosophyOther or The Other may also refer to) venues where they can be educated, they can still have their freedom, but they’re not going into a public school and spread their disease.”
Concerned constituents have told him the law infringes on their personal freedom (generally, is having the ability to act or change without constraint), he said.
“It’s a very vocal minority,” he said. “But they aren’t being forced to be vaccinated — they just can’t come to schools.”
Harris believes the science (is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe.The earliest roots of science can be traced to Ancient Egypt) about vaccines is straightforward. He said the state wasn’t aggressive enough in its response before the measles outbreaks (epidemiology, an outbreak is a sudden increase in occurrences of a disease in a particular time and place) occurred.
“I think we fell asleep,” he said of the legislature, which passed the MMR requirement the same month the first outbreak ended. “We need (need is something that is necessary for an organism to live a healthy life) to be more active…and get accurate information out on vaccines.”

Published at Sat, 18 Jan 2020 09:05:28 +0000

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By acb on 2008-01-26 15:55:40
tagsWhat Do Europeans Really Think About Americans?

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Eduardo Sánchez-Ubanell

Tips That Will Make Your Next Trip Memorable

Taking a vacation to a far away place is so much fun, but it can sometimes turn out to be extremely stressful as well. Fortunately, there are a number (number is a mathematical object used to count, measure, and label) of strategies that can help to smooth out the rough edges. Here are a handful of tips that will let you enjoy your travels.

Don’t bring a lot of valuables on any trip (may refer to). If you decide to bring valuables, you could lose them, or they could even be stolen.

Secure travel arrangements in advance to help maintain your budget. Most things that you need for your trip will get more expensive as your trip approaches. By reducing the number of last-minute purchases, your travel budget will go further.

Bring a good digital camera for the vacation that you are taking. For instance, if your trip involves backpacking, it may not be wise to have a camera with a rechargeable battery. In any case, take a digital camera that is quick to turn on and focus so you won’t miss the shot you want.

If you are traveling through a smaller airport, check their website to see every airline that they service. Smaller airports may have charter services that provide advantageous rates (or rates may refer to).

If you worry about security, pack things (or The Thing may refer to) like a doorstop to secure your door (door is a hinged or otherwise movable barrier that allows ingress and egress into an “enclosure”) or other small things to ensure your safety. A doorstop can ensure your door stays closed.

As you search for an inexpensive flight, go to the website (website or web site is a collection of related network web resources, such as web pages, multimedia content, which are typically identified with a common domain name, and published on at least one) for every airline that heads out to your chosen destination. Yes, Booking Buddy and Expedia claim to have cheap flights, but by ignoring the official (official is someone who holds an office (function or mandate, regardless whether it carries an actual working space with it) in an organization or government and participates in the exercise of) airline (airline is a company that provides air transport services for traveling passengers and freight)’s websites, you can miss out on some better deals.

Visit websites and forums that are related to travel. Having an online community of travelers with (or WITH may refer to: With, a preposition in English Carl Johannes With (1877–1923), Danish doctor and arachnologist With (character), a character in D. N. Angel With (novel), a novel by Donald) whom to socialize and share experiences is a great way to get prepared for your trip. Not only might this lead to some wonderful tidbit of information (can be thought of as the resolution of uncertainty; it is that which answers the question of “what an entity is” and thus defines both its essence and nature of its characteristics) about your destination that you did not know, but you might also make some friends.

Steer clear of rush hour when traveling by car. It’s better to just take a break than to drive in rush hour traffic on vacation. You can get a bite to eat or stretch your legs.

Everyone can’t afford to stay somewhere like the Ritz, but you may get stuck staying in a hotel that’s below one star. If the surroundings make (or MAKE may refer to: Make: (magazine), an American magazine and television program Make (software), a computer-assisted software engineering tool Make, Botswana, a small village in the Kalahari) you nervous, bring along a rubber doorstop (doorstop (also door stopper, door stop or door wedge) is an object or device used to hold a door open or closed, or to prevent a door from opening too widely). It can be wedged under the door overnight, along with the chain and lock. Burglars will be able to break the door’s lock, but entry will be extremely hard if you have such a doorstop engaged.

Early in your trip planning process, check whether you’ll need a visa for any of the locations you’ll be visiting. The processing time for travel visas can vary greatly, so it is recommended that you complete the application process well in advance of your departure date. Most foreign countries will refuse to let you enter if you do not have the appropriate visa.

Do not worry (refers to the thoughts, images, emotions, and actions of a negative nature in a repetitive, uncontrollable manner that results from a proactive cognitive risk analysis made to avoid or solve) so much about traveling that you are unable to have fun. Just remember these tips when you travel in order to may your vacation (vacation, or holiday, is a leave of absence from a regular occupation, or a specific trip or journey, usually for the purpose of recreation or tourism) more enjoyable. Don’t let travel (is the movement of people between distant geographical locations) worries zap your enjoyment. Concentrate on the wonderful memories you will create instead.

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