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11:02, 21 February 2018

Bench to Bedside: A Change of Heart, pt.1 – Embryonic Heart Development – Deepak Srivastava

Part 1: A Change of Heart: Embryonic Heart Development: Understanding (is a psychological process related to an abstract or physical object, such as a person, situation, or message whereby one is able to think about it and use concepts to deal adequately with that) the molecular pathways involved in normal heart development suggests treatments for both congenital and adult (an adult is a human or other organism that has reached sexual maturity) onset heart disease. Part 2: A Change of Heart: In vivo Cellular Reprograming: The introduction of specific genes into mammalian hearts caused fibroblasts to be reprogrammed to cardiac muscle (is a soft tissue found in most animals) cells. https://www.ibiology.org/ibioeducation/change-heart-heart-development-embryo-adult.html Talk Overview: During embryogenesis, the heart needs to form a specific three-dimensional shape or a child will be born with a defective heart. Srivastava and his colleagues hope that by better understanding the molecular pathways involved in normal heart (heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system) development, it will possible to improve treatments for both congenital and adult onset heart disease. In his first talk (may refer to: Conversation, interactive communication between two or more people Speech, the production of a spoken language Interaction, face to face conversations Compulsive talking, beyond the), Srivastava describes studies from his lab and others which use animal models and induced pluripotent stem cells to elucidate many of the gene (gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA which codes for a molecule that has a function) networks that determine cardiac cell fate. iPS cells have been particularly important for identifying a mutation in the human (humans (Homo sapiens, ssp) transcription factor GATA4.  By understanding the importance of GATA4 during heart development, it has been possible to develop a model that explains how cardiac (heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system) specific genes can be activated while genes for other cell types are repressed. About half of the cells in an adult heart are cardiac myocytes, or muscle cells, and about half are cardiac fibroblasts or support cells.  Following a heart attack, muscle is lost and fibroblasts form scar tissue.  In his second talk, Srivastava asks whether our understanding of embryonic heart development can be used to reprogram fibroblasts (fibroblast is a type of cell that synthesizes the extracellular matrix and collagen, the structural framework (stroma) for animal tissues, and plays a critical role in wound healing) to myocytes to repair (meaning of maintenance involves operational and functional checks, servicing, repairing or replacing if necessary devices, equipment, machinery, building infrastructure, and supporting utilities in) damaged adult hearts. His lab showed that introducing the genes for 3 transcription factors important for embryonic cardiac development resulted in an increase in the number of myocytes in a mouse heart after an induced heart attack. Similar results were obtained in vivo in pigs and in vitro in human cells suggesting that in vivo cellular reprogramming by gene therapy has broad implications for organ regeneration. Speaker Biography: Deepak Srivastava is a Senior Investigator at the Gladstone Institute of Cardiovascular Disease and Director of the Roddenberry Center for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine. He is also a Professor of Pediatrics and of Biochemistry and Biophysics at the University of California, San Francisco. Srivastava’s lab investigates the molecular events that instruct cardiac progenitor cells (may refer to) to differentiate into a functioning heart during embryogenesis.  Using their knowledge of cardiac development (or developing may refer to), Srivastava’s lab has reprogrammed non-muscle cells to function as heart muscle cells in the mouse allowing for repair of damaged heart tissue. This technique may allow for repair of human cardiac tissue (may refer to: Tissue (biology), a tissue is an ensemble of similar cells from the same origin that together carry out a specific function Tissue paper, a type of thin, translucent paper used for) following a heart attack (may refer to). Learn more about Dr. Srivastava’s research here: https://gladstone.org/u/dsrivastava/SrivastavaLab.htmFrom: iBiology

Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nb-V89Gf7SA

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